Tag: Terminology

What is 127.0.0.1?

127.0.0.1 is a reserved IP address corresponding to the host computer. Known as the loopback address, 127.0.0.1 is used whenever a program needs to access a network service running on the same computer as itself. Although mainly used as a testing and... [more]



What is 3G?

3g is an acronym signifying third-generation mobile phone technology. Based upon higher network bandwidth than the first 2g digital cellular phones, 3g-capable telephones and networks will support video calls, high speed WWW access, multimedia sharin... [more]



What is 802.11?

802.11 is a series of IEEE specifications describing wireless data transfer. Most commonly implemented in WiFi applications, 802.11 has become the de-facto wireless connection specification for long-term connection and application function. Only Blue... [more]



What is ActiveX?

ActiveX is a series of computer program distribution and runtime technologies. Developed by Microsoft, ActiveX technologies have been incorporated into almost all of Microsoft's products released in recent years including Windows, Word, Excel, and In... [more]



What is ADSL?

ADSL is an acronym for the Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line. ADSL is the most common consumer form of DSL, the Digital Subscriber Line that makes high-speed Internet access possible over legacy communication equipment. While traditional modems are ... [more]



What is Adware?

Adware is software that is distributed without charge in exchange for the user's consent to view advertisements. The name "adware" is a portmanteau of the words "advertisement" and "software". As computer users turn to FOSS or pirate software to redu... [more]



What is Ajax?

Ajax is an acronym for Asynchronous JavaScript and XML. Ajax is a technique whereby a website can update part of a page without refreshing the whole content. This saves bandwidth and provides for a more interactive user experience. In other words, ch... [more]



What is Apache?

Apache HTTP Server is a webserver developed and maintained by The Apache Software Foundation. The stated objective of Apache is to create an open source HTTP server that will run on any modern operating system and hardware. In addition to it's wide p... [more]



What is BIOS?

BIOS is an acronym for Basic Input / Output System. It is the first part of the computer to boot, and usually decides from where to boot the operating system. The BIOS is also responsible for some of the most basic computer interfaces such as keyboar... [more]



What is a Blog?

The word "blog" is a portmanteau of "web log". Most blogs today are not in fact logs or reports strictly speaking, rather loose journals written by people with little or no professional writing background beyond that which they publish on their blogs... [more]



What is Blu-ray?

Blu-ray is an optical disc format, similar to CD and DVD. Blu-ray's main advantage over CD and DVD formats is the 25 GB capacity of a single-layer single-sided Blu-ray disc: over five times that of a comparable DVD, and over 35 times that of a compar... [more]



What is Bluetooth?

Bluetooth is a wireless protocol- a method by which devices can communicate without a physical connection such as a cable. Most devices that have cables of less than a meter's length are suitable candidates for being replaced with Bluetooth devices, ... [more]



What is a Botnet?

A botnet is a network of zombie computers controlled by a single entity. The term is a portmanteau of the phrase "Robot Network". Usually, the zombies in use of a botnet are compromised computers running the Microsoft Windows operating system that ha... [more]



What is a Buffer Overflow?

A buffer overflow is a type of computer security exploit which allows a program to perform functions that it is not designed to do. The responsibility for preventing the possibility of exploit lies in the programmer, however this requires proper plan... [more]



What is a Bug?

A bug is an error in a computer program or hardware. While usually the result of programmer error or oversight, bugs can also be introduced into a program through compiler error, incorrect assumptions about hardware or software interfaces, or can be ... [more]



What is a Client?

A client is a computer program that depends upon another program to function. Usually, client software receives data or instructions from a remote program called a server. Some thin clients actually have critical software components execute on the re... [more]



What is a Computer?

A computer is a device that accepts user input, processes it, and returns output. Usually, the modern use of the term computer refers to an electronic device that accepts input via keyboard and mouse, and returns output via a CRT or LCD monitor. Othe... [more]



What is a Computer Program?

A computer program is a file or collection of files that instruct a computer what to do. Just like a program at a play or concert, a computer program at the most basic level is a list of events. The computer iterates through the list and performs fun... [more]



What is Copyleft?

Copyleft is a manner of ensuring that a work will remain free in all variations and interpretations that may become of it. The term originated from the need of software developers to publish the code of their programs for others to use, yet to requir... [more]



What is CSS?

CSS is an acronym for Cascading Style Sheets. CSS is a language used to define the layout and appearance of webpages. The primary purpose of Cascading Style Sheets is to separate the content of a webpage from its layout, therefore facilitating an eas... [more]



What is Data?

Data is a collection of processed information. The singular form of data, datum, is Latin for "given", a term interchangeable with "fact". Therefore, data is a collection of facts. While the term "raw data" may refer to unprocessed facts that may be ... [more]



What is a Decibel?

The decibel is the common measure of sound intensity and radio signal strength. Although it has never been ratified by any governing standards body, its suitability to measuring ratios and losses has led to widespread adoption of the decibel in indus... [more]



What is DomainKeys Identified Mail?

DomainKeys Identified Mail is a an email authentication method designed to control spam and phishing. Developed by Yahoo, DKIM is now endorsed by major Internet and email related organizations such as the PGP Corporation, Cisco Systems, and the devel... [more]



What is DRM?

DRM stands for Digital Rights Management. The term refers to a series of technologies aimed at preventing the unauthorized transfer of software, music, games, and other electronic media from a legal user to anybody else. When one "purchases" DRM-enab... [more]



What is a Dual Core Processor?

A dual core processor is an integrated circuit with two central processing units. This allows an operating system to multitask, or perform different functions simultaneously, at the hardware level as opposed to the software level. This uses less ener... [more]



What is Electricity?

Electricity is a broad term encompassing the family of phenomenon arising from interaction between charged particles. Of the four fundamental forces of nature, the electromagnetic force is the most influential in our everyday lives. It is responsible... [more]



What is Email?

Email is abbreviation for "Electronic Mail". It is one of the most common uses of the Internet today, secondary only to the World Wide Web. Although originally spelled with a dash (E-mail) popular use has seen the dash eliminated. This is evidence to... [more]



What is Energy?

Energy is the ability to do work. Energy may be stored (potential energy), or it can be said to be a property of an objects motion (kinetic energy). While the scientific definition of energy has been refined for centuries and thus has a very specific... [more]



What is an EULA?

EULA is an acronym for End User License Agreement. It defines the relationship between the provider of software and the end user. Usually, the EULA restricts the way a user can use software, such as prohibiting the redistribution of the software or r... [more]



What is Facebook?

Facebook is a social networking service that allows users to post profiles and interact with the profiles of other users. It was founded in February 2004 and is currently reckoned to have 750 million active users. The site was founded by four Harvard... [more]



What is Firefox?

Firefox is Mozilla Corporation's popular open source web browser. Firefox was originally intended to be a lightweight version of Mozilla's Netscape (Seamonkey) browser, intended for those who need a web browser only and do not need the rest of the so... [more]



What is a Firewall?

A firewall is a system that prevents unauthorized access to and from a network. On personal computers, the network protected is often a single computer. These systems typically rely upon a software firewall, that is, a computer program operating in t... [more]



What are FOSS and FLOSS software?

FOSS and FLOSS are two acronyms describing the same thing: software that permits end users to examine its source code, modify it, and redistribute any modifications. The acronyms stand for "Free/Open Source Software" and "Free/Libre/Open Source Softw... [more]



What is FUD?

FUD is an acronym for "fear, uncertainty, and doubt." FUD is often employed as a semi-legitimate marketing tool in the technology sector, in which purchasing decisions are often made by parties who are unable to completely assess two competing produc... [more]



What is GIMP?

GIMP is an open source graphics editor. Often erroneously referred to as "The Gimp", the program's name is properly written in all capital letters, with no preceding "the", to emphasize the acronym GNU Image Manipulation Program. Although GIMP is con... [more]



What is the GPL?

The GPL is the Free Software Foundation's General Public Licence. The GPL is considered the standard open source software licence, and many non-software works are published under the GPL as well. The purpose of this license is to ensure that a work c... [more]



What is a Hacker?

A hacker is a computer software or hardware expert who displays exceptional knowledge and understanding in his field. Originally, the term was reserved for those who created or modified their hardware to do things that readily available hardware coul... [more]



What is Hardware?

Hardware is the physical, tangible components of a computer or other electronic device. The term hardware traditionally refers to the physical components of any technology, which is paired with human or animal power and skill to perform it's function... [more]



What is HTML?

HTML is the language in which webpages are written. The acronym stands for HyperText Markup Language. The term "Hypertext" refers to the links inside of HTML pages, which allow the user to quickly jump from page to page, and even to different places ... [more]



What is HTML Email?

HTML Email is a type of email message formatted with the HTML markup language. This means that instead of writing plain text, the authors of email messages formatted in HTML can change the font size and colour of their text, and can add pictures, tab... [more]



What is a Hybrid Vehicle?

A hybrid car is an automobile that has two or more major sources of propulsion power. Most hybrid cars currently marketed to consumers have both conventional gasoline and electric motors... [more]



What is Infrared?

Infrared, or IR, is the the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum between 0.750 and 1000 micrometers. The term infrared literally means "below red", reference to the spectrum's location just below the 0.700 micrometers that the human eye perceives ... [more]



What is the Internet?

The Internet is a global network of computers that communicate via TCP/IP protocol. While the uncapitalized term "internet" refers to bridged networks in general, the capitalized term "Internet" refers to the global network of networks that is public... [more]



What is Internet Explorer?

Internet Explorer is Microsoft's integrated web browser. Known by its acronym IE, the program is referred to as an integrated web browser, rather than as a standard web browser, because of the heavy reliance between it and Microsoft's Windows operati... [more]



What is Java?

Java is a programming language. Java differs from most other programming languages in that programs written in Java can generally be run on many different types of computers, not only the type of computer it was written on. This is because Java is ru... [more]



What is Kazaa?

Kazaa is a popular P2P file sharing client. Originally based upon the proprietary Morpheus P2P client and it's FastTrack network, Kazaa diverged from Morpheus compatibility in early 2002 due to licensing disputes. After the split, Kazaa had become th... [more]



What is KDE?

KDE is a graphical desktop environment for Unix and Unix-like operating systems such as Linux. In addition to a basic desktop, KDE includes many popular types of software including a text editor, a web browser, an office suite, an email client, a PIM... [more]



What is a Kernel?

The kernel is the central part of an operating system, that directly controls the computer hardware. Usually, the kernel is the first of the user-installed software on a computer, booting directly after the BIOS. Operating system kernels are specific... [more]



What is a Keylogger?

A keylogger is a program that records all input from the keyboard. Although often installed by malware on computers running Microsoft Windows, keyloggers are available for all operating systems and can be installed like any other software. System adm... [more]



What is the Kyoto Protocol?

The Kyoto Protocol is the first legally binding update to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The UNFCCC was developed at the 1992 Earth Day summit in Rio de Janeiro with the intention of balancing worldwide greenhouse gas emission... [more]



What is a Laser?

Laser is an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. The term originally referred to devices capable of emitting monochromatic (or near-monochromatic) light. As the devices developed and entered into almost every type indu... [more]



What is a Linux Distribution?

The term distribution refers to a complete GNU/Linux operating system. Commonly shortened to just "distro", a distribution includes the Linux kernel, hundreds of small GNU programs and tools, and usually a windows manager or three. The term Linux tec... [more]



What is Malware?

Malware is a portmanteau of "malicious software". The term refers to any computer program that harms the computer running it, or the user of that computer. Typically, malware is installed without the user's knowledge or consent, though it is often pa... [more]



What is Microsoft?

Microsoft Corporation is a software company based in Redmond, Washington. Microsoft's flagship product, the Windows operating system, is the single most popular operating system for home desktop use. Its other desktop products, namely Microsoft Offic... [more]



What is Microsoft Windows?

Microsoft Windows is a series of operating systems and environments developed and marketed by Microsoft Corporation. The first version of Windows was released in 1985 as a graphical user interface to MS-DOS, providing multiple document support, mouse... [more]



What is a Network?

A network is an interconnected system of nodes, or objects. In computer terminology, networks usually refer to either the electric distribution systems some large IT providers manage, or systems of interconnected computers. The largest of these compu... [more]



What is Noise Pollution?

Noise pollution is a type of energy pollution in which distracting, irritating, or damaging sounds are freely audible. As with other forms of energy pollution (such as heat and light pollution), noise pollution contaminants are not physical particles... [more]



What is NTFS?

NTFS is a Microsoft file system. It was introduced in Windows NT and has been the default file system for every version of Microsoft Windows since. NTFS replaced the aged FAT file system and addresses most of FAT's shortcomings. NTFS has been continu... [more]



What is Online?

The term online refers to a device or service that is available for immediate use. Typically the word is used in reference to the Internet, with online services being any service that is accessible via the World Wide Web or other Internet interface. ... [more]



What is Open Source?

Open source is a programming philosophy whereby all aspects of a program are open for review. The term usually refers to the source code of the program, but can also refer to files created by the program, which would be readable in other applications... [more]



What is an Operating System?

An operating system is the lowest-level program running on a computer. The operating system provides software interfaces for the computer hardware, basic input and output functions, file and network management, and memory allocation. On top of ... [more]



What is P2P?

P2P is an acronym for Peer To Peer. Like VOIP, the term P2P describes the goal of a class of technologies, not any particular method, protocol, or individual technology. P2P has been the focus of much controversy since the first P2P network, Napster,... [more]



What is a PAN?

PAN is an acronym for Personal Area Network. A PAN is a network of battery or solar powered devices worn on the human body to enhance communication, leisure, productivity, or awareness. Typical devices found in a PAN are a cellular telephone, wristwa... [more]



What is PHP?

PHP is an open source programming language. As PHP is very simple to learn it is often associated with amateur website construction, however professional PHP developers are capable of producing code rivaling that of more complex languages such as Per... [more]



What is a Protocol?

A protocol is a system of rules that define how something is to be done. In computer terminology, a protocol is usually an agreed-upon or standardized method for transmitting data and/or establishing communications between different devices. Just as ... [more]



What is QuickTime?

QuickTime is a digital audio and video suite developed by Apple. Available for free download from Apple's website, the QuickTime Player is a media player available bundled with or without iTunes for the Apple OS-X and Microsoft Windows operating syst... [more]



What is QWERTY?

QWERTY is the name of the single most common keyboard layout. It derives its name from the first six letters of the layout, as they are pronounceable in every language that uses the layout. All Latin-based languages use some derivative of the QWERTY ... [more]



What is RAM?

RAM is an acronym for Random Access Memory. It is a type of computer memory akin to a person's short-term memory. Data that must be accessed quickly is kept in RAM, such as running applications and open files. When a computer does not have enough RAM... [more]



What is a Rootkit?

A rootkit is a type of computer program that hides its presence from the administrator of the machine. Usually installed as malware, rootkits are very difficult to detect and remove because they erase all evidence of their presence. Often, the only v... [more]



What is a Router?

A router is a computer hardware component that directs data between networks, or within a single network. Often, consumer-grade routers are used to connect several home computers to a single Internet connection, and/or to each other. Commercial route... [more]



What is RSS?

RSS is a method whereby a website or server can provide a simple summary of its newest content. An RSS file is called a feed. Although this feed is delivered over the Internet just like a webpage, its format is not compatible with standard web browse... [more]



What is a Server?

A server is a computer program that responds to a request from another program. Server software is generally not run in a standalone fashion, rather, end-user software usually interfaces with server software in a distributed manner. Additionally, a c... [more]



What is Skype?

Skype is one of the original free VOIP applications available for consumer use. Available for free download for every major operating system, Skype quickly founded itself as the leading consumer VOIP application and a technological pioneer. In additi... [more]



What is Software?

Software is the non-tangible aspect of a computer that is necessary for it to perform any function. Software includes the programs that instruct the computer what to do, the configuration files where important system information is stored, and user f... [more]



What is Spam?

Spam refers to both the process of sending unsolicited messages via the Internet, and to the messages themselves. However, the term "unsolicited messages" is open to debate, and as such what is considered spam varies widely. In the strictest sense, s... [more]



What is Spyware?

Spyware is any computer program that reports usage patterns or specifics of the computer on which it is installed to a third party. Spyware is a type of malware that generally does not adversely affect the performance of the computer on which it is r... [more]



What is SQL?

SQL is an acronym for Structured Query Language. SQL is the standard language for communicating with relational databases. Short requests, called queries, are made to an SQL-compliant database and results are returned. Usually, these results are answ... [more]



What is SQL Injection?

SQL injection is a type of computer security exploit in which an attacker can gain access to remote database systems. Using a carefully-constructed value for a form field, such as a name or email address, an attacker can fool the application into req... [more]



What is Storm?

The Storm Botnet is a distributed computer network consisting of computers remotely controlled without their owner's knowledge. Computers in the Storm Botnet are home and small office machines running the Microsoft Windows operating system which have... [more]



What is Teleportation?

Teleportation is the transfer of physical objects from one place to another, distant place, without transferring the physical particles that constitute the original object. By most definitions, the object in its original location is either destroyed ... [more]



What is Telepresence?

Telepresence is the action or simulation of remote attendance. Although true stimulation of all five human senses from a remote environment is not possible with current technology, high-quality remote video and audio feeds are termed telepresence for... [more]



What is Throughput?

Throughput is a measurement of the rate of data transfer through a network. Often erroneously referred to as bandwidth, throughput is a combination of the limiting factors of device latency, the speed of the data transfer medium, and the distance bet... [more]



What is Top Posting?

Top posting is the practice of placing the reply text to an email at the top of the message being returned, with the original message quoted below. Although most mail clients encourage top posting by automatically placing the cursor at the beginning ... [more]



What is Ubuntu?

Ubuntu is a popular Linux distribution, designed with the intent of overthrowing Microsoft Windows as the world's most widely-used operating system. The distro is composed entirely of open source components, which have been heavily modified for easy ... [more]



What is Unix?

Unix is an operating system designed by Bell Labs to handle time sharing on their DEC mainframe computers. After abandoning the Multics OS project, Bell was in need of an operating system to power it's DEC mainframes. A notable Bell Multics developer... [more]



What is a URL?

URL is an acronym for Uniform Resource Locator. URL is the technical term for what is often called a "web address". It is the address by which computers and documents on the Internet can be located. The URL was invented by Tim Berners-Lee as one of h... [more]



What is USB?

USB is a connection standard for computer peripherals. The term USB is an acronym for Universal Serial Bus. Specially designed, one-way connectors ensure that computer keyboards, flash drives, printers, digital cameras, [media pl... [more]



What is a Virtual Machine?

A virtual machine is a computer application which presents simulated hardware to an operating system running as a process on a host system. Virtual machines are useful for testing or deploying multiple independent operating systems on a single physic... [more]



What is a Virus?

A virus is a computer program that is capable of self-replicating and executing copies of itself on remote systems. In this sense, the computer virus is similar to a biological virus, from whence it draws its name. While a virus by definition does no... [more]



What is VOIP?

VOIP is an acronym for Voice Over Internet Protocol. The acronym accurately describes the purpose of the technology, yet hints at the difficulties in implementation to those familiar with IP (Internet Protocol). The term VOIP refers to no particular ... [more]



What is A Webpage?

A webpage is a document that is designed to be displayed in a web browser. A webpage usually contains text and images formatted in HTML. Occasionally, other types of content are also embedded in webpages, such as Flash videos and music files. Webpage... [more]



What is Web 2.0?

Web 2.0 is an undefined buzzword used to describe websites utilizing technologies and techniques not common, or not available, in early websites. Typically, Web 2.0 applications are written in accessible, open formats such as XML and present the user... [more]



What is a Web Browser?

A web browser is a program that lets a human access webpages on the World Wide Web. At a bare minimum, a web browser must be able to make HTTP requests and to present parsed HTML to the user in a form that he can understand. Most modern browsers pres... [more]



What is Wibree?

Wibree is a short-range wireless protocol optimized for low power consumption. Developed primarily by Nokia, the company has submitted Wibree as an open standard to promote adoption and interoperability. Wibree is intended to compliment Bluetooth com... [more]



What is WiFi?

WiFi is a family of communication protocols developed for wireless local area networks. The protocols are largely based upon the IEEE's 802.11 standard and subsequent revisions to it, though several proprietary extensions to the standard are in wides... [more]



What is the World Wide Web?

The World Wide Web is a network of computers that serve webpages. The World Wide Web is a major component of the Internet, along with email, usenet, ftp, and some other minor protocols. The term "world wide" refers to the global nature of the World W... [more]



What is XHTML?

XHTML is a language for writing webpages. It is the newest form of the traditional HTML webpage language, and meets all of the requirements for being an XML language. That means that the language is compatible with modern web browsers, and can also b... [more]



What is XML?

XML is an open format whereby computers and humans can share data. XML files are not intended to be read directly by humans, rather, they are intended to be parsed by a computer. Some types of XML are converted into human-readable form (RSS feeds, fo... [more]



What is XMP?

XMP is an acronym for "Extensible Metadata Platform". XMP defines a standard, uniform way for applications to describe and store the metadata of files. Based on XML, XMP is designed specifically for describing files that is easily parsed, understood,... [more]



What is XSS?

XSS is an abbreviation for Cross Site Scripting. This refers to a type of computer security vulnerability where malicious users can add carefully-constructed comments to webpages with the intention of fooling web browsers. While most websites have fi... [more]



What is Y2K?

Y2K was the abbreviated name of the Millennium Bug. Short for "Year 2000", Y2K refers to a bit-saving technique used in antiquated computer systems in which two digits were used to represent years, instead of the usual four digits. Thus, for example,... [more]



What is a Yagi-Uda antenna?

The Yagi-Uda antenna is a directional antenna designed to maximize reception over long distances. Generating a much higher signal-to-noise ratio than other antenna designs, the Yagi-Uda antenna has become the de facto standard in antenna applications... [more]



What is a Zero-Day Exploit?

A zero-day exploit is a computer security vulnerability that is being actively practiced before knowledge of the exploit becomes public information. Usually, two groups of experts research and discover new security exploits: those who are interested ... [more]



What is Zip?

Zip is a compressed file archive format. Zip files, called archives, are container files that usually contain a number of files compressed for portability or long term storage. Depending on the compression level specified at the time the zip file was... [more]



What is a Zombie?

A zombie is a computer that is remotely controlled by an unauthorized entity. Most active zombies today are personal computers running the Microsoft Windows operating system that have been infected with malware. Other zombies may be compromised Windo... [more]



What is Zonealarm?

Zonealarm is a software-based firewall for the Microsoft Windows operating system. It is produced by Zone Labs and released under several different versions, each providing different features and cost. Some of these versions include anti-virus protec... [more]


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